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Annotated Bibliography of MCAT® Research

This list presents publications and presentations about research on the MCAT® exam since 1987. Among the areas explored in the bibliography are the relationship between performance on the MCAT® and performance at difference stages of medical education, test validity, reliability and equating issues, medical college selection procedures, and issues related to acceptance to medical school.

  • Basco, W.T., Jr., Way, D.P., Gilbert, G.E., & Hudson, A. (2002). Undergraduate Institutional MCAT Scores as Predictors of USMLE Step 1 Performance. Academic Medicine, 77, S13-S16.
  • Basco, W.T., Jr., Gilbert, G.E., & Blue, A.V. (2002). Determining the Consequences for Rural Applicants When Additional Consideration is Discontinued in a Medical School Admission Process. Academic Medicine, 77, S20-S22.
  • Boyd, A.M., Dodd, B.G. & Fitzpatrick, S.J. (2002). A Comparison of Exposure Control Procedures in CAT Systems Based on Different Measurement Models for Testlets. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges.
  • Bhardwaj, A. (1993, November). A Method for Using New MCAT Scores with Longitudinal Databases. Paper presented at the Research in Medical Education Conference, Washington, D.C.
  • Blue, A.V., Gilbert, G.E., Elam, C.L., & Basco, W.T., Jr. (2000). Does Institutional Selectivity Aid in the Prediction of Medical School Performance? Academic Medicine, 75, S31-S33.
  • Childs, R.A., & Oppler, S. H. (1999). Practical Implications of Test Dimensionality for Item Response Theory Calibration of the Medical College Admission Test. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges.
  • Colliver, J. A., Verhulst, S.J., & Williams, R.G. (1989). Using a Standardized Patient Examination to Establish the Predictive Validity of the MCAT and Undergraduate GPA as Admissions Criteria. Academic Medicine, 64, 482-484.
  • Davis, D., Dorsey, K., Franks, R.D., Sackett, P.R., Searcy, C.A., & Zhao, X. (2013). Do Racial and Ethnic Group Differences in Performance on the MCAT Exam Reflect Test Bias? Academic Medicine, 88(5), 593-602.
  • Dunleavy, D.M., Kroopnick, M.H., Dowd, K.W., Searcy, C.A., & Zhao, X. (2013). The Predictive Validity of the MCAT Exam in Relation to Academic Performance through Medical School: A National Cohort Study of 2001-2004 Matriculants. Academic Medicine, 88(5), 666-671.
  • Dunleavy, D.M., Sondheimer, H.S., Castillo-Page, L., & Bletzinger, R.B. (2011). Medical School Admissions: More than Grades and Test Scores. Association of American Medical Colleges: Analysis in Brief, 11(6).
  • Dunleavy, D.M., & Whittaker, K.M. (2011). The Evolving Medical School Admissions Interview. Association of American Medical Colleges: Analysis in Brief, 11(7).
  • Daugherty, S.R., Nora, L.M., Schmidt, J.L., & Goodman, L.J. (1992). Identifying Poor Preclinical Performers Who Do Well in Clerkships. Academic Medicine, 67, S72-S74.
  • Davis, L.L., & Dodd, B.G. (2001). An Examination of Testlet Scoring and Item Exposure Constraints in the Verbal Reasoning Section of the MCAT. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges.
  • Elam, C.L., & Johnson, M.M.S. (1992). Prediction of Medical Students' Academic Performances: Does the Admission Interview Help? Academic Medicine, 67, S28-S30.
  • Elam, C.L., Stratton, T.D. Wilson, J.F. & Scott, K.L. (2002). How Admission Committees Decide: Influence of Committee Members' Experience and Applicants' Academic Characteristics. Academic Medicine, 77, S26-S28.
  • Etienne, P.M. (2000). The MCAT Science Content Review Part I: Report on the Medical School Survey of Science Content. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges.
  • Etienne, P.M. (2000). The MCAT Science Content Review Part II: Report on the Surveys of Undergraduate Science Content. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges.
  • Haraysm, P.H., Woloschuk, W., Mandin, H., & Brundin-Mather, R. (1996). Reliability and Validity of Interviewers' Judgments of Medical School Candidates. Academic Medicine, 71, S40-S42.
  • Hendrickson, A.B., & Kolen, M. J. (1999). IRT Equating of the MCAT. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges.
  • Hojat, M., Erdmann, J.B., Veloski, J.J., Nasca, T.J., Callahan, C.A., Julian, E., & Peck, J. (2000). A Validity Study of the Writing Sample Section of the Medical College Admission Test. Academic Medicine, 75, S25-S27.
  • Hojat, M., Robenson, M., Damjanov, I., Veloski, J.J., Glaser, K., & Gonnella, J.S. (1993). Students' Psychosocial Characteristics As Predictors of Academic Performance in Medical School. Academic Medicine, 68, 635-637.
  • Huff, K.L., & Fang, D. (1999). When are Students Most at Risk of Encountering Academic Difficulty? A Study of 1992 Matriculants to U.S. Medical Schools. Academic Medicine, 74, 454-460.
  • Huff, K.L., Koenig, J.A., Treptau, M.M., & Sireci, S.G. (1999). Validity of MCAT scores for Predicting Clerkship Performance of Medical Students Grouped by Sex and Ethnicity. Academic Medicine, 74, S41-S44.
  • Hull, M.L., & Stocks, M.T. (1995). Relationship between Quantity of Undergraduate Science Preparation and Preclinical Performance in Medical School. Academic Medicine, 70, 230-235.
  • Jolly, P. (1992). Academic Achievement and Acceptance Rates of Underrepresented-Minority Applicants to Medical School. Academic Medicine, 67, 765-769.
  • Jones, R.F. (1986) The Effect of Commercial Coaching Courses on Performance on the MCAT. Journal of Medical Education, 61, 273-284.
  • Jones, R.F., & Adams, L. N. (1983). The Relationship between MCAT Science Scores and Undergraduate Science GPA. Journal of Medical Education, 58, 908-1011.
  • Jones, R.F., & Mitchell, K. J. (1986). Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Predictive Validity of MCAT Scores. Paper presented at the 67th Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
  • Jones, B.J., & Seeman, R.E. (1993, November). How Does the New MCAT Correlate with Term 1 Medical School Performance? Paper presented at the Research in Medical Education Conference, Washington, D.C.
  • Jones, R.F. & Thomae-Forgues, M. (1984). Validity of the MCAT for Predicting Performance in the First Two Years of Medical School. Journal of Medical Education, 59, 455-464.
  • Julian, E. (2005). Validity of the Medical College Admission Test for Predicting Medical School Performance. Academic Medicine, 80, 910-917.
  • Julian, E.R., Ingersoll, D.J., Etienne, P.M., & Hilger, A.E. (2004). The Impact of Testing Accommodations on MCAT Scores: Descriptive Results. Academic Medicine, 79, 360-364.
  • Julian, E. & Lockwood, J. (2000). Predictive Validity of the Medical College Admission Test. Contemporary Issues in Medical Education, 3, 2.
  • Koenig, J.A. (1995, April). Examination of the Comparability of MCAT Writing Sample Test Forms. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
  • Koenig, J.A. (1992). Comparison of Medical School Performances and Career Plans of Students with Broad and with Science-focused Premedical Preparation. Academic Medicine, 67, 191-196.
  • Koenig, J.A., & Leger, K.F. (1997). A Comparison of Retest Performance and Test-preparation Methods for MCAT Examinees Grouped by Gender and Race-Ethnicity. Academic Medicine, 72, S100-S102.
  • Koenig, J.A., Li, W., & Haynes, R. (1987, December). Estimation of the Validity of the 1991 MCAT for Predicting Medical School Grades, NBME Performance, and Academic Difficulty. Paper prepared for MCAT Evaluation Panel Meeting, Washington, DC.
  • Koenig, J.A., & Mitchell, K.J. (1993). Use of Medical College Admission Test Writing Sample Data in Medical School Admissions Decisions. The Advisor, 13, 13-15.
  • Koenig, J.A., & Mitchell, K.J. (1988). An Interim Report on the MCAT Essay Pilot Project. Journal of Medical Education, 63, 21-29.
  • Koenig, T.W., Parrish, S.K., Terregino, C.A., Williams, J.P., Dunleavy, D.M., & Volsch, J.M. (2013). Core Personal Competencies Important to Entering Students’ Success in Medical School: What Are They and How Could They Be Assessed Early in the Admission Process? Academic Medicine, 88(5), 603-613.
  • Koenig, J.A., Sireci, S.G., & Wiley, A. (1998). Evaluating the Predictive Validity of MCAT Scores Across Diverse Applicant Groups. Academic Medicine, 73, 1095-1106.
  • Koenig, J.A., & Wiley, A. (1996). The Validity of the Medical College Admission Test for Predicting Performance in the First Two Years of Medical School. Academic Medicine, 71, S83-S85.
  • Kroopnick, M. (2013). The MCAT Exam: Comparing the 1991 and 2015 Exams. Academic Medicine, 88(5), 737.
  • Lacher, D.A., & Richardson, B.L. (1994, October). Predicting First-Year Medical School Performance From MCAT Scores and Premedical Grade-Point Average Using Neural Networks. Paper presented at the Research in Medical Education Conference, Boston, MA.
  • Li, W., & Mitchell, K. (1992, April). Preliminary Investigation of the Factor Structure of the 1991 Medical College Admission Test. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
  • Lynch, K.B., & Woode, M.K. (1990). The Relationship of Minority Students' MCAT Scores and Grade Point Averages to Their Acceptance into Medical School. Academic Medicine, 65, 480-482.
  • Matthew, D., & Kroopnick, M. (2010). Evolving Behaviors of MCAT Examinees Who Apply to U.S. Medical Schools. Academic Medicine, 85(6), 1100.
  • McGaghie, W.C. (2002). Assessing Readiness for Medical Education Evolution of the Medical College Admission Test. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1085-1090.
  • McLarty, J.R., & Mitchell, K.J. (1991, April). Effects of Prompt Context and Order on Creating Equivalent Essay Test Forms. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
  • Meara, K., & Sireci, S.G. (1998). Appraising the Dimensionality of the Medical College Admissions Test. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges.
  • Mitchell, K.J. (1990). Traditional Predictors of Performance in Medical School. Academic Medicine, 65, 149-158.
  • Mitchell, K.J., & Anderson, J.A. (1996). Reliability of Holistic Scoring for the MCAT Essay. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 771-775.
  • Mitchell, K.J., & Haynes, R. (1990). Score Reporting for the 1991 Medical College Admissions Test. Academic Medicine, 65, 719-723.
  • Mitchell, K., Haynes, R., & Koenig, J.A. (1994). Assessing the Validity of the Updated Medical College Admission Test. Academic Medicine, 69, 394-401.
  • Mitchell, K.J., & Molidor, J.B. (1986). Factor Structure of the MCAT and Pilot Essay. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 46, 1019-1027.
  • Monroe, A., Quinn, E., Samuelson, W., Dunleavy, D.M., & Dowd, K.W. (2013). An Overview of the Medical School Admission Process and Use of Applicant Data in Decision Making: What Has Changed Since the 1980s? Academic Medicine, 88(5), 672-681.
  • Montague, J.R., & Frei, J.K. (1993, April). A Twelve-year Profile of Students' SAT Scores, GPAs, and MCAT Scores from a Small University's Premedical Program. Academic Medicine, 68, 306-308.
  • Neustel, S. (1998). An Investigation into the Possible Speededness of the Medical College Admission Test. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges.
  • Schwartzstein, R.M., Rosenfeld, G.C., Hilborn, R., Oyewole, S.H., & Mitchell, K. (2013). Redesigning the MCAT Exam: Balancing Multiple Perspectives. Academic Medicine, 88(5), 560-567.
  • Scott, J.N., & Markert, R.J. (1994). Relationship Between Critical Thinking Skills and Success in Preclinical Courses. Academic Medicine, 69, 920-924.
  • Shen, H., & Comrey, A.L. (1997). Predicting Medical Students' Academic Performances by Their Cognitive Abilities and Personality Characteristics. Academic Medicine, 72, 781-786.
  • Silver, B., & Hodgson, C.S. (1997). Evaluating GPAs and MCAT Scores as Predictors of NBME I and Clerkship Performances Based on Students' Data from One Undergraduate Institution. Academic Medicine, 72, 394-396.
  • Swanson, D.B., Case, S.M., Koenig, J.A., & Killian, C.D. (1996). Preliminary Study of the Accuracies of the Old and New Medical College Admission Tests for Predicting Performance on USMLE Step 1. Academic Medicine, 71, S25-S30.
  • Vancouver, J.B., Reinhart, M.A., Solomon, D.J., & Haf, J.J. (1990). Testing for Validity and Bias in the Use of GPA and the MCAT in the Selection of Medical School Students. Academic Medicine, 65, 694-697.
  • Veloski, J.J., Callahan, C.A., Xu, G., Hojat, M., & Nash, D.B. (2000). Prediction of Students' Performances on Licensing Examinations Using Age, Race, Sex, Undergraduate GPA, and MCAT Scores. Academic Medicine, 75, S28-S30.
  • Webb, C.T., Shields, P., Cohen, D., Sedlacek, W., & Nieman, L. (1994, October). Breaking Away from Tradition: Atypical Correlations for Academic Performances. Paper presented at the Research in Medical Education Conference, Boston, MA.
  • Zenisky, A.L., Hambleton, R.K., & Sireci, S.G. (1999). Effects of Item Local Dependence on the Validity of IRT Item, Test, and Ability Statistics. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges.
  • Zhao, X., Oppler. S.H., Dunleavy, D.M., & Kroopnick, M. (2010). Validity of Four Approaches of Using Repeaters’ MCAT Scores in Medical School Admissions to Predict USMLE Step 1 Total Scores. Academic Medicine, 85, S1-S4.
  • Zhao, X., Dunleavy, D.M., Oppler. S.H., & Kroopnick, M. (2011a). Alternative Scoring Approaches for Retest Scores: Implications for Differential Prediction. Poster presented at the annual conference of the Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology, Chicago.

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