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    MSQ Scale References

    Each item number below refers to the item number in the 2020 MSQ All Schools Summary Report.

    Item 11. Tolerance for Ambiguity (TFA)

    Geller G, Tambor ES, Chase GA, Holtzman NA. Measuring physicians' tolerance for ambiguity and its relationship to their reported practices regarding genetic testing. Medical care. 1993;31(11):989-1001.

    Caulfield M, Andolsek K, Grbic D, Roskovensky L. Ambiguity tolerance of students matriculating to U.S. medical schools. Acad Med. 2014;89(11):1526-1532.

    Item 12. Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)

    Hojat M, Spandorfer J, Louis DZ, Gonnella JS. Empathic and sympathetic orientations toward patient care: conceptualization, measurement, and psychometrics. Acad Med. 2011;86(8):989-995.

    Davis MH. Measuring individual differences in empathy: evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1983;44:113-126.

    Item 13: Quality of Life (QOL) Scale

    Thomas MR, Dyrbye LN, Huntington JL, et al. How do distress and well-being relate to medical student empathy? A multicenter study. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22(2):177-183.

    Item 14: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) Scale

    Warttig SL, Forshaw MJ, South J, White AK. New, normative, English-sample data for the Short Form Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4). Journal of health psychology. 2013;18(12):1617-1628.

    Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of health and social behavior. 1983; 24(4):385-396.