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    GBA Professional Development Glossary

    New to your job? Still learning the terminology? 

    The Group on Business Affairs (GBA) Professional Development Committee created a glossary to help new employees learn more about the common terms used in their positions.  

    Search the table below to find common terms and definitions. 

    Acronym (if applicable) Term Definition
    AHC Academic Health Center Provides patients and the community with health care for everyday needs and the most specialized services for complex diseases, illnesses, and injuries. Offers unique care not available anywhere else in the region. Teaches generations of health care professionals. Develops technology and carries out research that improves lives.
    AMC Academic Medical
    An academic medical center is the medical school and a hospital (university-based), and academic medicine includes both these types plus the affiliated community hospitals.
    AA Account Administrator Has the ability to create/edit all Commons accounts, except SO, Business Official (BO), and all types of Financial Conflict of Interest (FCOI) accounts, and Internet Assisted Reviewer (IAR) accounts.
    ACGME Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) is an independent, not-for-profit, physician-led organization that sets and monitors the professional educational standards essential in preparing physicians to deliver safe, high-quality medical care to all Americans.
    ADR Adverse Drug Reaction Any untoward and unintended responses to the trial intervention, at any dose administered, including all AEs judged by either the reporting investigator or the sponsor as having a reasonable causal relationship to the trial intervention.
    AE Adverse Event Any untoward medical occurrence in a participant, which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with the trial intervention.
      Allocable Costs The concepts of allowability, allocability, and reasonableness of costs address directly the legitimacy of a cost charged against a specific sponsored research award.
      Allowable Costs Allowable costs are expenses that are included in a contracted service or product. Usually allowable costs are present in contracts between two companies.
    AMCAS American Medical College Application  

    Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care

    AAALAC International is a private, nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through voluntary accreditation and assessment programs.
      Audit An official inspection of an individual's or organization's accounts, typically by an independent body.
    BBA Board Agency Announcement Is a technique for United States government agencies to solicit proposals from outside groups for certain research and development. The agency will then select proposals to fund as contracts or grants. BAAs are broad in their subject matter and focus on advancing science rather than acquiring specific products, which are instead covered under a Request for proposals.
    CRF Case Report Form Is a paper or electronic questionnaire specifically used in clinical trial research. The case report form is the tool used by the sponsor of the clinical trial to collect data from each participating patient.
    CFDA Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Is a government-wide compendium of Federal programs, projects, services, and activities that provide assistance or benefits to the American public.
    CRA Certified Research  
      Change Order Work that is added to or deleted from the original scope of work of a contract, however, depending on the magnitude of the change, it may or may not alter the original contract amount and/or completion date. A change order may force a new project to handle significant changes to the current project.
    CRC Clinical Research Is a person responsible for conducting clinical trials using good clinical practice (GCP) under the auspices of a Principal Investigator (PI).
    CRO Clinical Research Organization Is a company that provides support to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device industries in the form of research services outsourced on a contract basis.
    COI Conflict of Interest A situation in which a person is in a position to derive personal benefit from actions or decisions made in their official capacity.
    CCRC Continuing Care Retirement Sometimes known as a life-care community, is a type of retirement community in the U.S. where a continuum of aging care needs—from independent living, assisted living, and skilled nursing care—can all be met within the community.
    CME Continuing Medical Education Consists of educational activities which serve to maintain, develop, or increase the knowledge, skills, and professional performance and relationships that a physician uses to provide services for patients, the public, or the profession.
    CO Contract Officer An individual entrusted by an organization with the authority to enter into, administer, renew or terminate contracts, along with related determinations and findings.
      Cooperative Agreement An agreement in which the Federal Government provides funding or a thing of value authorized by public statute and the government plays a substantial role. A cooperative agreement is a form of assistance. It reflects a relationship between the U.S. Government and a recipient.
    CRADA Cooperative Research and Development Is an agreement between a government agency and a private company or university to work together on research and development.
      Cost Sharing The portion of project or program costs not borne by the sponsor, but borne by the institution instead.
    DUNS Data Universal Numbering System

    A DUNS number is a unique nine-character number used to identify your organization. The federal government uses the DUNS number to track how federal money is allocated.

      Debit & Credit Under the double-entry system every business transaction is recorded in at least two accounts. One account will receive a "debit" entry, meaning the amount will be entered on the left side of that account. Another account will receive a "credit" entry, meaning the amount will be entered on the right side of that account. The initial challenge with double-entry is to know which account should be debited and which account should be credited.
    DFAR Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Is a supplement to the FAR that provides the DoD specific acquisition regulations. The office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition Technology and Logistics maintains the Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy.
      Depreciation The amount of an asset's cost that has been allocated and reported as an expense for the period (year, month, etc.) shown in the income statement.
      Direct Cost Are costs that can be specifically attributed to a particular sponsored project, a particular university-funded research project, an instructional activity (including departmental research), any other institutional activity, or that can be directly assigned to such activities.
    DO Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine Is a fully trained and licensed doctor who has attended and graduated from a U.S. osteopathic medical school. DOs use this knowledge to perform osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT), a series of hands-on techniques used to help diagnose illness or injury and facilitate the body's natural tendency toward self-healing.
    EBITA Earnings before Interest, Tax, and Amortization This figure represents what an entity earned before the deduction of taxes, interest on loans and a reduction for amortization, a paying off debts over time. Many will use this number to represent how efficient a company is in its operations in comparison to another similar business. It is also a cash flow indicator.
    ERAs Electronic Residency Application Services Streamlines the residency application process for applicants, their Designated Dean's Offices, Letter of Recommendation (LoR) authors and program directors. By providing applicants the ability to build and deliver their application and supporting materials individually or as a package to programs, ERAS provides a centralized, but flexible solution to the residency application and documents distribution process.
    EIN Employee Is a unique identification number that is assigned to a business entity so that it can easily be identified by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
      Encumbrance A contingent liability, contract, purchase order, payroll commitment, tax payable, or legal penalty that is chargeable to an account. It ceases to be an encumbrance when paid-out or when the actual liability amount is determined and recorded as an expense.
      Endowment Any asset donated to and for the perpetual benefit of a non-profit institution. The donation is usually made with the requirement that the principal remain intact and money earned from investing the principal be used for a specific purpose.
    F&A Facilities and Administrative Costs The Facilities and Administrative Rate (F&A Rate) is the mechanism used to reimburse the University for the infrastructure support costs associated with sponsored research and other sponsored projects. The F&A rate is essentially an overhead rate. It is calculated as a percentage of overhead associated with, an allocable to, sponsored research and other activities, divided by the direct costs of sponsored research and other activities.
    FERPA Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974) is federal legislation in the United States that protects the privacy of students' personally identifiable information (PII). The act applies to all educational institutions that receive federal funds.
    FAR Federal Acquisition Is the principal set of rules in the Federal Acquisition Regulations System regarding government procurement in the United States.
    FFR Federal Financial Report Is a statement of expenditures associated with a grant. Recipients of federal funds are required to report the status of funds for grants or assistance agreements to the sponsor of the grant using the Federal Financial Report expenditure data.
    FISMA Federal Information Security Management Act The Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) is United States legislation that defines a comprehensive framework to protect government information, operations and assets against natural or man-made threats. FISMA was signed into law part of the Electronic Government Act of 2002.
    FASB Financial Accounting Standards Board The independent, private-sector, not-for-profit organization based in Norwalk, Connecticut, that establishes financial accounting and reporting standards for public and private companies and not-for-profit organizations that follow Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).
    FY Fiscal Year Institutions may follow a fiscal year for accounting and budget purposes, generally not in alignment with calendar year. E.g., July 1, 2018 through June 30, 2019. The Federal Fiscal Year is October 1 through September 30.
      Fixed Price Phrase used to mean the price of a good or a service is not subject to bargaining. The term commonly indicates that an external agent, such as a merchant or the government, has set a price level, which may not be changed for individual sales.
    FDA Food and Drug Administration The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
    FAFSA Free Application for Federal Student Aid Is a form completed by current and prospective college students (undergraduate and graduate) in the United States to determine their eligibility for student financial aid.
    FTE Full Time Effort  
    FOA Funding Opportunity Announcement A publicly available document by which a Federal agency makes known its intentions to award discretionary grants or cooperative agreements, usually as a result of competition for funds. Funding opportunity announcements may be known as program announcements, requests for applications, notices of funding availability, solicitations, or other names depending on the agency and type of program.
    GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles A collection of commonly-followed accounting rules and standards for financial reporting and includes definitions of concepts and principles, as well as industry-specific rules.
    GCP Good Clinical Practice Is an international quality standard that is provided by ICH, an international body that defines a set of standards, which governments can then transpose into regulations for clinical trials involving human subjects.
    GASB Governmental Accounting Standards The independent, private-sector organization based in Norwalk, Connecticut, that establishes accounting and financial reporting standards for U.S. state and local governments that follow Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).
    GME Graduate Medical Education Resident physicians graduated from medical school and typically spend three to seven years in graduate medical education (GME) training at teaching hospitals and their associated ambulatory settings. (Not to be confused with Graduate Education (Ph.D./Master's))

    Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

    Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, is United States legislation that provides data privacy and security provisions for safeguarding medical information.
      Human Subject A living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research.
      In Vitro Performed or taking place in a test tube, culture dish, or elsewhere outside a living organism.
      In Vivo Performed or taking place in a living organism

    Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity

    Is a U.S. federal government contracting acronym meaning indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity. This is a type of contract that provides for an indefinite quantity of supplies or services during a fixed period of time.
    ICA Independent Contractor Agreement Is a natural person, business, or corporation that provides goods or services to another entity under terms specified in a contract or within a verbal agreement. Independent contractors do not have income taxes withheld like regular employees.
    IDC Indirect Cost Recovery Sometimes called overhead, facilities and administrative (F&A) costs, or shared expenses — are costs incurred in the conduct of externally sponsored research that are shared across a large number of projects as well as other functions of the University.
    IACUC Institutional Animal Care and Use A local working group that research facilities must appoint in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
    IRB Institutional Review Board The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is an administrative body established to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects recruited to
    participate in research activities conducted under the auspices of the institution with which it is affiliated.
      Interest It represents interest payable on any borrowings – bonds, loans, convertible debt or lines of credit. It is essentially calculated as the interest rate times the outstanding principal amount of the debt.
    IND Investigational New Is a request for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorization to administer an investigational drug to humans.
      Key Personnel Refers to individuals who are specifically and uniquely important to the study.
    LOI Letter of Intent A document containing a declaration of the intentions of the person or the business.
    LOE Level of Engagement A project management term for support type project activity that must be done to support other work activities or the entire project effort. It usually consists of short amounts of work that must be repeated periodically.
    LCME Liaison Committee on Medical Education Is an accrediting body for educational programs at schools of medicine in the United States and Canada.
    MCAT Medical College Admission Test A test that is required of all applicants to medical school in the U.S. and Canada. The MCAT is "a standardized test used to assess applicants' science knowledge, reasoning, and communication and writing skills."
    MD Medical Doctor Is a fully trained and licensed doctor who has attended and graduated from a U.S. allopathic medical school.
    MSPE Medical Student Performance Is a comprehensive assessment of your performance in achieving the educational objectives of our medical school curriculum. It is neither a letter of recommendation nor the College of Medicine's prediction of your future performance in a residency program.
    MTDC Modified Total Direct Cost Modified Total Direct Cost, or MTDC, is the total of all direct costs of the project, with the following exclusions: equipment over $5,000, capital expenditures, charges for patient care, tuition remission, rental costs of off-site facilities, scholarships and fellowships, as well as that portion of each subgrant or subcontract issued in excess of $25,000.
    NCI National Cancer Institute The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The NCI coordinates the United States National Cancer Program and conducts and supports research, training, health information dissemination, and other activities related to the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer; the supportive care of cancer patients and their families; and cancer survivorship.
    NCT National Clinical Trial A unique identification code given to each clinical study record registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. The format is "NCT" followed by an 8-digit number (for example, NCT00000419). Also called the ClinicalTrials.gov identifier.
    NIH National Institutes of Health Federal granting agency, with 27 institutes and centers, each with a specific research agenda, often focusing on a particular disease or body system.
    NRMP National Resident Matching Program Also called The Match, is a United States-based private non-profit non-governmental organization created in 1952 to place U.S. medical school students into residency training programs located in United States teaching hospitals.
    NSF National Science Foundation A United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health.
    NRSA NIH National Research Service Award Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) Individual Fellowship for Students at Institutions Without NIH-Funded Institutional Predoctoral Dual-Degree Training Programs.
    NCE No Cost Extension A no-cost extension extends the project period beyond the original project end date. As the phrase “no cost” suggests, there is no additional funding.
    NDA Non Disclosure Agreement Is a legal contract between two or more parties that signifies a confidential relationship exists between them. The confidential relationship exists because the parties share information among themselves that should not be made available to any other parties outside of those involved, such as competitors or the general public or. An NDA may also be referred to as a confidentiality agreement.
    NGA Notice of Grant Award Is a legal document given to the intended organization that indicates an award has been made and that funds may be requested from the designated HHS payment system or office.
    OHRP Office of Human Research Protections Supports, strengthens and provides leadership to the nation's system for protecting volunteers in research that is conducted or supported by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

    Office of Management and Budget

    The Office of Management and Budget oversees the performance of federal agencies, and administers the federal budget.
    A133 OMB A-133
    Compliance (Single
    Many organizations and government agencies that receive federal funds are required to undergo a Single Audit, also known as an "OMB A-133 Audit" for the regulations set down in Circular A-133 by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The purpose of a Single Audit is to ensure a recipient of federal funds is in compliance with the federal program's requirements for how the money can be used. Each federal agency that gives out grants outlines specific items it feels are important for recipients to meet to ensure the successful management of the program and alignment with the legislative intent of the program
    A110 OMB Circular A-110 Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations". This Circular sets forth standards for obtaining consistency and uniformity among Federal agencies in the administration of grants to and agreements with institutions of higher education, hospitals, and other non-profit organizations. This is the primary guidance that non-profit organizations must follow if they receive federal awards, including both grants and co-operative agreements.
      Phase I Studies assess the safety of a drug or device. This initial phase of testing, which can take several months to complete, usually includes a small number of healthy volunteers (20 to 100), who are generally paid for participating in the study. The study is designed to determine the effects of the drug or device on humans including how it is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted. This phase also investigates the side effects that occur as dosage levels are increased. About 70% of experimental drugs pass this phase of testing.
      Phase II Studies test the efficacy of a drug or device. This second phase of testing can last from several months to two years, and involves up to several hundred patients. Most phase II studies are randomized trials where one group of patients receives the experimental drug, while a second "control" group receives a standard treatment or placebo. Often these studies are "blinded" which means that neither the patients nor the researchers know who has received the experimental drug. This allows investigators to provide the pharmaceutical company and the FDA with comparative information about the relative safety and effectiveness of the new drug. About one-third of experimental drugs successfully complete both Phase I and Phase II studies.
      Phase III Studies test the efficacy of a drug or device. This second phase of testing can last from several months to two years, and involves up to several hundred patients. Most phase II studies are randomized trials where one group of patients receives the experimental drug, while a second "control" group receives a standard treatment or placebo. Often these studies are "blinded" which means that neither the patients nor the researchers know who has received the experimental drug. This allows investigators to provide the pharmaceutical company and the FDA with comparative information about the relative safety and effectiveness of the new drug. About one-third of experimental drugs successfully complete both Phase I and Phase II studies.
      Phase IV Often called Post Marketing Surveillance Trials, are conducted after a drug or device has been approved for consumer sale. Pharmaceutical companies have several objectives at this stage: (1) to compare a drug with other drugs already in the market; (2) to monitor a drug's long-term effectiveness and impact on a patient's quality of life; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of a drug therapy relative to other traditional and new therapies. Phase IV studies can result in a drug or device being taken off the market or restrictions of use could be placed on the product depending on the findings in the study.
    PI Principal Investigator Primary individual responsible for the preparation, conduct, and administration of a research grant, cooperative agreement, or other sponsored project.
      Priority Score Members of the review group privately vote a numerical impact/priority score from 1 to 9, where 1 is best. The normalized average of all reviewer impact/priority scores constitutes the final impact/priority score. Impact scores run from 10 to 90, where 10 is best. Generally speaking, impact/priority scores of 10 to 30 are most likely to be funded; scores between 31 and 45 might be funded; scores greater than 46 are rarely funded. Before 2009, NIH used a different score system, with final scores from 100 to 500, where 100 was best.
    P&L Profit and Loss Statement The profit and loss statement is a financial statement that summarizes the revenues, costs and expenses incurred during a specified period, usually a fiscal quarter or year. P&L statement is synonymous with the income statement. These records provide information about a company's ability or inability to generate profit by increasing revenue, reducing costs or both. Some refer to the P&L statement as a statement of profit and loss, income statement, statement of operations, statement of financial results or income, earnings statement and expense statement.
    PA Program Announcement A funding opportunity announcement for areas of increased priority and/or emphasis on particular funding mechanisms for a specific area of science.
    PO Program Officer Is an integral part of a foundation or nonprofit organization. It is up to Program Officers to oversee program development, seek grants and proposals, manage projects and oversee budgets.
    PHS Public Health Services Supports, strengthens and provides leadership to the nation's system for protecting volunteers in research that is conducted or supported by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
    QA Quality Assurance Set of internationally recognized ethical and scientific quality requirements which must be observed for designing, conducting, recording and reporting clinical trials that involve the participation of human subjects.
    RVU Relative Value Unit Is a measure of value used in the United States Medicare reimbursement formula for physician services. RVUs are a part of the resource-based relative value scale (RBRVS).

    Request for Applications

    A type of funding opportunity announcement - the granting agency has funds set aside for awarding grants.
    RFP Request for Proposal Solicitation of proposals, by an institution interested in purchasing a commodity/service, to potential suppliers.
    SAE Serious Adverse Event Defined as any untoward medical occurrence that at any dose. results in death, is life-threatening. requires inpatient hospitalization or causes
    prolongation of existing hospitalization.
    SO Signing Official Has institutional authority to legally bind the institution in grants administration matters, and may have any number of titles in the grantee organization. The SO can register the institution, and create and modify the institutional profile and create all types of user accounts, including additional SO accounts.

    Small Business Technology Transfer

    Program that expands funding opportunities in the federal innovation research and development (R&D) arena.
    SOP Standard Operating Procedure Written procedure prescribed for repetitive use as a practice, in accordance with agreed upon specifications aimed at obtaining a desired outcome.
    SLOE Standardized Letter of Evaluation A requirement for all residency applications. Residency programs often require these letters to be 'institutional' or 'composite' SLOEs obtained from EM 4th-year rotations. These letters compile feedback and comments from multiple faculty over the course of a medical student's rotation.
    SOW Statement of Work A formal document that defines the entire scope of work in a project.
    SME Subject Matter Expert Is a person who is an authority in a particular area or topic.

    Summary of Medical Benefits


    Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program

    Process through which unmatched residency positions are filled by unmatched residency applicants during Match Week.
    SBIR The Small Business Innovation Research A United States Government program, coordinated by the Small Business Administration, intended to help certain small businesses conduct research and development (R&D). Funding takes the form of contracts or grants.
    TDC Total Direct Costs Total Direct Cost, or TDC, is the total of all direct costs of the project with no exclusions. Note that when this method is used you must also calculate what F&A would be using the MTDC method and choose the lesser of the two.
      Unallowable costs Costs that are referred to as non-covered or non-contracted costs.
    UME Undergraduate Medical Education Administers an educational program towards the MD degree that: Provides students with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits they will need to practice safe, effective, ethical, evidence-based and patient-centered medicine in the 21st century.
    USMLE United States Medical Licensing Examination Aims to assess whether medical school students or graduates can apply important concepts of the foundational sciences fundamental to the practice of medicine.
    A21   This Circular establishes principles for determining costs applicable to grants, contracts, and other agreements with educational institutions. The principles deal with the subject of cost determination, and make no attempt to identify the circumstances or dictate the extent of agency and institutional participation in the financing of a particular project. The principles are designed to provide that the Federal Government bear its fair share of total costs, determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where restricted or prohibited by law. Agencies are not expected to place additional restrictions on individual items of cost.
    Bench Research   Wet bench research is done in what has traditionally been called a laboratory setting, which contains lab benches, sinks, hoods (fume or tissue culture), microscopes, and other lab equipment. It involves chemicals and/or biological specimens including animals, tissues, cells, bacteria, or viruses.
    Bridge Funding   Also known as bridge financing, is a form of temporary, intermediate funding intended to cover a PI's short-term expenses until long-term funding is secured.
    Contract Amendment   Is a formal or official change made to a contract or other legal document.
    Cradle to Grave    
    eraCommons   Is an online interface where grant applicants, grantees and federal staff at NIH and grantor agencies can access and share administrative information relating to research grants.
    Fringe Rate   A percentage of an hourly wage rate (or salary) that represents the employer's additional costs of employee benefits such as paid vacation days, paid sick days, insurance (health, dental, life, worker compensation), retirement plans, federal and state employer payroll taxes (Social Security, Medicare, unemployment insurance), cafeteria, daycare, etc.
    Industry   Research is paid for by an industry organization that has contracted with a faculty member to conduct a clinical trial that involves an intervention with, or observation of, a disease or biomedical condition, or a registry/repository related to a disease or biomedical condition.
    Internal Award   An institution's own funding mechanism to foster excellence in research and scholarship by faculty and support activities aimed at securing extramural funding.
    Post Award   Activities performed after an award is issued. Income projections of costs, prepare budgets and budget changes, prepare salary plans, oversee grant regulations, prepare financial reports, and act as your liaison to central administration.
    Post Doc   A postdoctoral scholar ("postdoc") is an individual holding a doctoral degree who is engaged in a temporary period of mentored research and/or scholarly training for the purpose of acquiring the professional skills needed to pursue a career path of his or her choosing.
    Pre Doc   Refers to a researcher who has a bachelor's degree, but not a doctorate.
    Preaward   Evaluation of a prospective contractor's financial, operational, and organizational capabilities to assess the contractor's eligibility and responsibility, usually for large contracts.
    Preclinical Research   Preclinical research involves the evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions in cells and animals.
    Professional Practice   The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.
    Protocol   A document that describes how a clinical trial will be conducted (the objective(s), design, methodology, statistical considerations and organization of a clinical trial,) and ensures the safety of the trial subjects and integrity of the data collected.
    Research Subject   A person who decides to participate in a research study.
    Salary Allocation    
    Stipend   A fixed regular sum paid as a salary or allowance.
    Subcontract   Contract for a company or person to do work for another company as part of a larger project.
    T32 - Trainee   The Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) (T32) supports grants to institutions to develop or enhance research training opportunities for pre and postdoctoral fellows to be trained in cancer research.
    Translational Research   Often used interchangeably with translational medicine or translational science or bench to bedside – is an effort to build on basic scientific research to create new therapies, medical procedures, or diagnostics.
    Wet Lab   Wet Laboratory space types are defined as laboratories where chemicals, drugs, or other material or biological matter are tested and analyzed requiring water, direct ventilation, and specialized piped utilities.