The Supreme Court upheld the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in California et. al v. Texas et al on June 17. In a 7-2 decision written by Justice Stephen Breyer, the Court held that the plaintiffs — the state of Texas, joined by other states and several individuals — lacked standing to challenge the constitutionality of the ACA’s individual mandate. That mandate required individuals to purchase insurance or face a penalty, but Congress eliminated the penalty in 2017. The Court found that the plaintiffs did not show that they were harmed by the penalty, a requirement for standing. Because standing is a threshold issue, the court did not reach the merits of the case of whether the mandate is constitutional.