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References

  1. Okahana H, Zhou E. Graduate Enrollment and Degrees: 2007 to 2017. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools; 2018.
  2. AAMC FACTS Data Chart 5,“Graduates to U.S. Medical Schools by Sex, 1980-1981 through 2018-2019.” And AAMC FACTS Table B-4, “Total U.S. Medical School Graduates by Race/Ethnicity (Alone) and Sex, 2014-2015 through 2018-2019.” Accessed Oct. 15, 2019.
  3. AAMC. 2017 State Physician Workforce Data Book. Washington, DC: AAMC; 2017.
  4. The National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2018.
  5. Raj A, Kumra T, Darmstadt G, Freund K. Achieving gender and social equality: more than gender parity is needed [published online ahead of print July 16, 2019]. Acad Med. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000002877.
  6. Mehta LS, Fisher K, Rzeszut AK, et al. Current demographic status of cardiologists in the United States [published online ahead of print]. JAMA Cardiol. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2019.3247.
  7. AAMC. Diversity in Medical Education: Facts and Figures 2016. www.aamcdiversityfactsandfigures2016.org. Accessed Aug. 27, 2019.
  8. Carr PL, Raj A, Kaplan SE, Terrin N, Breeze JL, Freund KM. Gender differences in academic medicine: retention, rank, and leadership comparisons from the National Faculty Survey. Acad Med. 2018;93(11):1694-1699.
  9. AAMC. Faculty Roster: U.S. Medical School Faculty, 2018. www.aamc.org/data/facultyroster/reports. Accessed Aug. 27, 2019.
  10. AAMC. Faculty Roster: Trends: Medical School Deans by Type and Sex. www.aamc.org/data/facultyroster/reports. Accessed Aug. 27, 2019.
  11. Dandar V, Lautenberger D, Garrison G. Promising Practices for Understanding and Addressing Salary Equity at U.S. Medical Schools. AAMC; 2019.
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  13. Jena AB, Olenski AR, Blumenthal DM. Sex differences in physician salary in U.S. public medical schools. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176:1294-1304.
  14. Cochran A, Neumayer LA, Elder WB, Barriers to careers identified by women in academic surgery: a grounded theory model. Am J Surg. 2019 Jul 17;pii: S0002-9610(19)30147-3. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.07.015.
  15. Raj A, Carr PL, Kaplan SE, Terrin N, Breeze JL, Freund KM. Longitudinal analysis of gender differences in academic productivity among medical faculty across 24 medical schools in the United States. Acad Med. 2016;91:1074-1079.
  16. Jagsi R, Guancial EA, Worobey CC, et al. The “gender gap” in authorship of academic medical literature — a 35-year perspective. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 20;355(3):281-7.
  17. Jagsi R, Tarbell NJ, Henault LE, Chang Y, Hylek EM. The representation of women on the editorial boards of major medical journals: a 35-year perspective. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Mar 10;168(5):544-8.
  18. Filardo G, da Graca B, Sass DM, Pollock BD, Smith EB, Martinez MA-M. Trends and comparison of female first authorship in high impact medical journals: observational study (1994-2014). BMJ. 2016;352:i847.
  19. Witteman HO, Hendricks M, Straus S, Tannenbaum C. Are gender gaps due to evaluations of the applicant or the science? A natural experiment at a national funding agency. Lancet. 2019 Feb 9;393(10171):531-540. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32611-4.
  20. Sege R, Nykiel-Bub L, Selk S. Sex differences in institutional support for junior biomedical researchers. JAMA. 2015;314:1175-1177.
  21. Kaatz A, Lee YG, Potvien A, et al. Analysis of National Institutes of Health R01 application critiques, impact, and criteria scores: does the sex of the principal investigator make a difference? Acad Med. 2016;91:1080-1088.
  22. Jagsi R, Motomura AR, Griffith KA, Rangarajan S, Ubel PA. Sex differences in attainment of independent funding by career development awardees. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Dec 1;151(11):804-11.
  23. Silver JK, Slocum CS, Bank AM, et al. Where are the women? The underrepresentation of women physicians among recognition award recipients from medical specialty societies. PM R. 2017 Aug;9(8):804-815.
  24. Smith GD, Rosenstein JE, Nikolov MC, Chaney DA. The power of language: gender, status, and agency in performance evaluations. Sex Roles. 2018 May;80(2):1-13.
  25. Files JA, Mayer AP, Ko MG, et al. Speaker introductions at internal medicine grand rounds: forms of address reveal gender bias. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2017;26:413-419.
  26. Boiko JR, Anderson AJ, Gordon RA. Representation of women among academic grand rounds speakers. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177:722-724.
  27. Silver JK, Bhatnagar S, Blauwet CA, et al. Female physicians are underrepresented in recognition awards from the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. PM R. 2017;9:976-984.
     

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