An otolaryngologist surgeon provides comprehensive medical and surgical care for patients of all ages with diseases and disorders that affect the ears, nose, throat, the respiratory and upper alimentary systems, and related structures of the head and neck. The specialty encompasses cosmetic facial reconstruction, surgery of benign and malignant tumors of the head and neck, and the diagnosis and management of allergic, sinus, laryngeal, thyroid, and esophageal disorders. With the exception of visual and eye-related disorders (the province of ophthalmologists) and lesions of the brain (managed by neurologists and neurosurgeons), otolaryngologists treat diseases and lesions above the shoulders--the ears, the respiratory and upper alimentary systems, and the head and neck. Specialists are trained in otology, rhinology, laryngology, allergy, head and neck surgery, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, and bronchoesophagology. They also have an understanding of the communication sciences (audiology and speech/language pathology), endocrinology, and neurology.