Cardiovascular disease, or cardiology, is the subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with diseases of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. Cardiology involves the prevention, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the cardiovascular system, including ischemic heart disease, cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiomyopathies, valvular heart disease, pericarditis and myocarditis, endocarditis, congenital heart disease in adults, hypertension, and disorders of the veins, arteries, and pulmonary circulation. Management of risk factors for disease and early diagnosis and intervention for established disease are important elements of the specialty. The specialty is relatively high-tech in its approach to diagnosis and treatment and is also on the cutting edge of preventive health and noninvasive treatment modalities. Cardiologists deal primarily with adults, many of whom are elderly. The practice involves a wide scope of patient care activities, ranging from basic physical exams to sophisticated interventions in life and death emergencies.